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Abstract

The confluence of basic cell biochemistry, epidemiological and anthropologic evidence points to high dietary carbohydrate and the associated disruption of the glucose-insulin axis as causes of the current increase in metabolic disorders, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This hyperinsulinemic state likely contributes, as well, to an increased mutagenic microenvironment, with increased risk for cancer. This critical review discusses these risks in their historical and evolutionary context. The evidence supports the benefits of lowering the glycemic load of the diet as a preventive measure against the development of cancer.